The ceded lands also included the (sometimes considered Moravian) territories of the Duchies of Troppau and Krnov north of the Opava river, as well as the strategically important Kodzko Land, a part of the core territory of the Kingdom of Bohemia.

The Polish Communists mobilized for cleansing and acculturation to de-Germanize their new home.

[citation needed], With the rapid advance of the Red Army in the winter of 19441945, German authorities desperately evacuated many Germans westwards. Lutheran Diocese of Mecklenburg and Pomerania, This page was last edited on 3 June 2022, at 05:04. As a result of the Treaty of Versailles, a minor part around Soldau was transferred to Poland, the Klaipda Region formed a free city supervised by the League of Nations, annexed following the Klaipda Revolt by Lithuania but reclaimed by Germany in 1938, while the bulk (including entire Warmia and Masuria) remained a part of Germany, following the East Prussian plebiscite, and became enlarged by the addition of the formerly West Prussian Malbork Land. [49] The terms referred to the "defined and existing border" from the Baltic Sea west of winoujcie - however without mentioning Szczecin - along the Oder and Lusatian Neisse rivers to the Czechoslovak border.[50].

Offering to take Poland under our wing and guide them to future conquest in the west in exchange for territory in the east turned out to be a successful approach.

Having given us our due, they seem to hope we'll have as little contact as possible.

Acknowledging the need for unity against the threats surrounding our countries on every side, [From.GetLeader] today announced to the world that [From.GetName] has entered a treaty with [Root.GetName] for the sake of our mutual safety.

Austria was in turn transformed into poly-ethnic Austria-Hungary, abstained from further German unification efforts and abandoned forced Germanization.

However, after the Congress of Vienna, the Polish duchy was again partitioned between Russia and Prussia.

In the early hours of 23 March 1939, after a political ultimatum caused a Lithuanian delegation to travel to Berlin, Lithuanian Foreign Minister Juozas Urbys and German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop signed the Treaty of the Cession of the Memel Territory to Germany in exchange for a Lithuanian Free Zone in the port of Memel that used the facilities erected in the previous years. Cornfield, Daniel B. and Hodson, Randy (2002). The territories retroceded to Poland in 1919 were those with a Polish majority, such as Greater Poland, as well as Pomerelia, historically the part of Poland providing its access to the sea.

[citation needed] This happened on a smaller scale than many Poles expected, and the Baltic Sea coast of Poland has become a popular German tourist destination. With rise of nationalism, the eastern Hohenzollern-ruled territories with a predominantly Polish population (especially the formerly Polish territories of Posen and West Prussia) increasingly became a target of aggressive Germanisation efforts, German settlement, anti-Catholic campaigns (Kulturkampf), as well as disfranchisement and expropriations of Poles, and finally annexed following the North German Confederation Treaty (1866).

Two decrees by Adolf Hitler (8 and 12 October 1939) divided the annexed areas of Poland into administrative units: The territories had an area of 94,000km2 and a population of 10,000,000.

However, a recent offer from the Soviets indicate otherwise.

At the turn of the 20th century, the total population of the province of almost 1.7 million inhabitants had a Polish-speaking minority of less than 1%.[8]. The first German colonists arrived in he late 12th century, and large-scale German settlement started in the early 13th century during the reign of Henry I. The final decision to move Poland's boundary westward was made by the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union at the Yalta Conference in February 1945, shortly before the end of the war.

In particular, the State Department acknowledged that Polish claims to Lower Silesia had no ethnic or historic justification. In the 12th to the 14th centuries, German settlers, most of whom spoke Low German, moved into Central and Eastern Europe in a migration process known as the Ostsiedlung, and the Hanseatic League dominated the shores of the Baltic Sea. Polonization proceeded rapidly, despite the still uncertain border.

Historia lska, Wrocaw 2007, s. 290. [34], Under Stalin's pressure, the Potsdam Conference, held from 17 July until 2 August 1945, placed all of the areas east of the OderNeisse line, whether recognised by the international community as part of Germany until 1939 or occupied by Germany during World War II, under the jurisdiction of other countries, pending a final Peace Conference.[35][36][37]. [33], After World War II, several memoranda of the US State Department warned against awarding Poland such extensive lands, apprehensive of creation of new long-standing tension in the area. Rather than taking over German place names, new Polish place names were determined by decree, reverting to a Slavic name or inventing a new name for places founded by German speakers. Mieszko's son and successor, Duke Bolesaw I Chrobry, upon the 1018 Peace of Bautzen expanded the southern part of the realm but lost control over the lands of Western Pomerania on the Baltic coast. The Status of Germany in International Law: Deutschland uber Deutschland? [56], Eastern territories lost by Germany after World War II, This article is about former territory east of the OderNeisse Line.

They agree that any transfers that take place should be effected in an orderly and humane manner. Over time, the "German question" has been muted by a number of related phenomena: Under Article 1 of the Treaty on Final Settlement, the new united Germany committed itself to renouncing any further territorial claims beyond the boundaries of East Germany, West Germany and Berlin; "The united Germany has no territorial claims whatsoever against other states and shall not assert any in the future."

[9] Typical Silesian cities such as Jelenia Gra (Hirschberg), Lwwek lski(Lwenberg), Zotoryja (Goldberg), introduced new laws to attract German settlers, had a typical architecture of being centered around a central square, the Ring, which became known in Polish as Rynek.

As the result of the peaceful influx of German-speakers, most of Silesia became German-speaking upon the consecutive extinction of various branches of Silesian Piasts, as earlier did Lusatia and later did most of the Kodzko Land following the Silesian Wars, but Czech continued to be spoken in parts of Austrian Silesia, in Hlun Region of the Upper Silesia and in the western part of Kodzko Land (Czech Corner), Sorbian in parts of Lusatia, while Polish prevailed in Middle Silesia north of the Oder River, in parts of Austrian Silesia and in Upper Silesia.

At the time of German Unification in 1871, the Kingdom of Prussia was the largest and dominant part of the North German Confederation, the predecessor of the newly formed German Empire. This page was last edited on 14 March 2021, at 16:24.

By the end of the Middle Ages, by influx of Germanic settlers, the assimilation of the Slavic population, the introduction of German town law, the influence of Germanic customs and the trade of the Hanse the area had been largely Germanized.

The Holy See immediately acknowledged the new reality following the Treaty of Warsaw and created new Polish dioceses in the territories with the papal bulls Episcoporum Poloniae coetus and Vratislaviensis Berolinensis et aliarium.

The northern half of historic East Prussia was, however, made part of the Soviet Union, with the former Klaipeda Region reattached to the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the rest being annexed by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic as the Kaliningrad Oblast, now forming a Russian exclave.

After Germanic tribes had left the area in the Migration Period, Lechitic tribes began to settle Silesia, while Lusatia was settled by the Milceni and the Polabian Slavs, and the Kodzko Land by Bohemians. [45], However, contrary to the official declaration that the former German inhabitants of the Recovered Territories had to be removed quickly to house Poles displaced by the Soviet annexation, the new Polish lands initially faced a severe population shortage. [38], The problem with the status of these territories was that the Potsdam Agreement was not a legally binding treaty, but a memorandum between the USSR, the US and the UK (to which neither France, nor Germany or Poland were party).

After a first plebiscite, Upper Silesia was to stay part of Germany's territory. In 1771 Lauenburg and Btow Land was annexed by the King in Prussia and integrated into the Province of Pomerania of the Kingdom of Prussia. As we're losing territory in the west, not being able to trust the Allies to protect us from German aggression, we could consider aligning with the German ambitions and reclaim portions of our old Commonwealth now absorbed into the Soviet Union. The offer was rejected by West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer.

Jahrhundert", "Review of Dagmar Barnouw, The War in the Empty Air: Victims, Perpetrators, and Postwar Germans", International law aspects of the German reunification alternative answers to the German question, Social Science in Eastern Europe: News letter: Special Issue German-Polish Year 2005/2006. Germany invaded Poland without a declaration of war on 1 September 1939, heralding the start of the Second World War.

However, because people and institutions in the states traditionally considered as Middle Germany, like the three southern new states Saxony-Anhalt, the Free State of Saxony and the Free State of Thuringia, still use the term Middle Germany when referring to their area and its institutions, the term Ostdeutschland is still ambiguous.[19]. When focusing on the period before World War II, "eastern Germany" is used to describe all the territories east of the Elbe (East Elbia), as reflected in the works of sociologist Max Weber and political theorist Carl Schmitt,[14][15][16][17][18] but because of the border changes in the 20th century, after World War II the term "East Germany" and eastern Germany in English has meant the territory of the German Democratic Republic. ", In the course of the German reunification, Chancellor Helmut Kohl initially caused international outcry by making no reference in his 10 Points to the acceptance of the border as definitive, but later reaffirmed reluctantly the acceptance of the territorial changes made after World War II, creating some outrage among the Federation of Expellees, while some Poles were concerned about a possible revival of their 1939 trauma through a "second German invasion", this time with the Germans buying back their land, which was cheaply available at the time. Some West German commentators continued to maintain that neither the Treaty of Zgorzelec nor the Treaty of Warsaw should be considered as binding on a future united Germany; albeit that these reservations were intended for domestic political consumption, and the arguments advanced in support of them had no substance in international law. This terminology was used in relation to territories of eastern Germany within the 1937 Germany border, and was based on the terminology used in the Potsdam Agreement.

Several independent duchies formed, and eventually some attached themselves to the Kingdom of Bohemia, an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, while the Kodzko Land became a constituent part of the Kingdom itself.

However, contrary to the official claims, the bulk of the expelles would likely have no real intention of returning to their homeland.

Although in the post-war period earlier German sources often cited the number of evacuated and expelled Germans as 16 million and the death toll as between 1.7[41] and 2.5 million,[42] those numbers are today considered by some historians to be exaggerated and the death toll more likely in a range between 400,000 and 600,000.

The conference agreed that the Polish eastern border would follow the Curzon Line and that Poland would receive substantial territorial compensation in the west from Germany, but the exact border was to be determined later. Therefore, the government of West Germany and the Bundestag declared in 1950 the Treaty of Zgorzelec null and void.

4 million inhabitants immediately after the, The problem with the status of these territories was that in 1945 the concluding document of the, M. Czapliski [in:] M. Czapliski (red.) The process was finalized in 1950 by the Treaty of Zgorzelec, an agreement signed under Soviet pressure by Otto Grotewohl, prime minister of the provisional government of the GDR (East Germany) and Polish premier Jzef Cyrankiewicz. Furthermore, they promise that in the event of a war with Germany, we will be compensated for the loss by being granted new land in the west.While this may be a better offer than we expected, we can't know if this supposed future war will ever be pursued. "[52] As part of this new approach, West Germany concluded friendship treaties with the Soviet Union (Treaty of Moscow (1970)), Poland (Treaty of Warsaw (1970)), East Germany (Basic Treaty (1972)) and Czechoslovakia (Treaty of Prague (1973)); and participated in the Helsinki Final Act (1975).

XII. Having been forced to cede Gdansk to the Germans, we are now locked in a vise between two empires threatening our sovereignty.

As previously agreed upon, after the annexation of eastern Germany territories by the Soviet Union, some of these will be come under Polish control as recompense for the past transfer of eastern Poland to the Soviet Union.

The term has sometimes been confused with the name East Germany, a political term, used to be the common colloquial English name for the German Democratic Republic (GDR), and mirrored the common colloquial English term for the other German state of West Germany.

[10] New forms of agriculture, technology, and law brought in by the German settlers, took root in the region, also to the profit of the Slavic population.

The Prussian Trust (or the Prussian Claims Society), that probably has less than a hundred members,[53] re-opened the old dispute when in December 2006 it submitted 23 individual claims against the Polish government to the European Court of Human Rights asking for compensation or return of property appropriated from its members at the end of World War II.

Following the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, Farther Pomerania became part of Brandenburg-Prussia. A clean sweep will be made.

[4] Germany's recognition of the OderNeisse line as the border was formalised by the re-united Germany in the GermanPolish Border Treaty on 14 November 1990; and by the repeal of Article 23 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany under which German states outside the Federal Republic could formerly have declared their accession.

In the interwar period, the German administration, both Weimar and Nazi, conducted a massive campaign of renaming of thousands of placenames, to remove traces of Polish, Lithuanian and Old Prussian origin. Being promised a share of Germany in case of a successful war and our protection, they agreed to cede their eastern territories peacefully.

[45], In the 1970s, West Germany adopted Ostpolitik in foreign relations, which strove to normalise relations with its neighbours by recognising the realities of the European order of the time,[52] and abandoning elements of the Hallstein Doctrine. German words were removed from buildings and even from art works, dishes, and gravesites. [48] Meanwhile, a blatantly fraudulent referendum was held on three different questions; the third of these was whether the Polish people were in favor of he new western border. Private Wojtek has proven himself a uniquely valuable member of our supply lines.

The wartime Polish government-in-exile had little say in the decisions. [55], After the National Democratic Party of Germany, described as a neo-Nazi organisation, won six seats in the parliament of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in September 2006, the leader of the party, Udo Voigt, declared that his party demands Germany in "historical borders" and questioned the current border treaties. On Bolesaw's death in 1138, Poland was for almost 200 years was subjected to fragmentation and ruled by Bolesaw's sons and by their successors, who were often in conflict with one another. The post-war border between Germany and Poland along the OderNeisse line was defined in August 1945 by the Potsdam Agreement of the leaders of the three Allied Powers, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States; and was formally recognized by East Germany in 1950, by the Treaty of Zgorzelec, under pressure from Stalin. It has therefore declined our request that they join the [Root.GetFactionName].

Masuria and the southern part of Pomesania and Pogesania stayed part of the rump Teutonic state (called thereafter Monastic Prussia or Teutonic Prussia) which became a German fief of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, finally secularised in 1525 to become the Ducal Prussia. Originally inhabited mainly by the pagan Old Prussians, the regions were conquered and incorporated into the state of the Teutonic Knights in the 13th and 14th centuries. This Basic Law thus applies to the entire German people. The Polish-speaking parts of Lower and Middle Silesia, commonly described until the late 19th century as the Polish side, were mostly Germanised in the 18th and 19th centuries, except for a few patches and a larger area along the northeastern frontier.[12][13]. The Third Reich annexed the Polish lands included the former Prussian Partition, comprising Pomerelia (the "Polish Corridor"), Chemno Land, Greater Poland proper, Kuyavia, czyca Land, Sieradz Land, Northern Masovia, as well as the parts of Upper Silesia located in Poland, including the former Czechoslovak part of Cieszyn Silesia annexed by Poland in 1938. because in the words of Winston Churchill, Expulsion is the method which, in so far as we have been able to see, will be the most satisfactory and lasting.

Clearly, this troublesome country won't avoid a partition even when they are given the chance.

Ecclesiastically, the Diocese of Wrocaw covering Silesia remained, however, a suffragan of the Polish Archdiocese of Gniezno until becoming exempt in 1821. In a foolish act of imagined self-preservation, [From.GetLeader] today announced that [From.GetName] will refrain from any diplomatic action that may be seen as threatening to their powerful neighbors. German craftsmen and miners also started settling mountainous areas.

However, we can probably abandon any hopes of forming a stronger bond with the nation in the future.

Under the Hallstein Doctrine, the Federal Republic broke diplomatic relations with states that maintained diplomatic relations with the GDR, except for the Soviet Union. ;[3] however by 1970, West Germany recognised the Oder-Neisse line as the western boundary of Poland by the Treaty of Warsaw; and in 1973, the Federal Constitutional Court acknowledged the capability of East Germany to negotiate the Treaty of Zgorzelec as an international agreement binding as a legal definition of its boundaries.

"Each spring, millions of workmen from all parts of western Russia arrived in eastern Germany, which, in political language, is called East Elbia. From the 10th century to the 12th century, Silesia, Lusatia, as well as the Kodzko Land, were contested between Bohemia and Poland.

As a result of this it has been decided that Wojtek should be promoted.

Questions, Paradox Duke Mieszko I of the Polans, from his stronghold in the Gniezno area, united various neighboring tribes in the second half of the 10th century, formed the first Polish state and became the first historically recorded Piast duke. Silesia, Lubusz Land and Lusatia (as parts of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown) and the Duchy of Pomerania became more firmly incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire. The German population of the territories that had not fled in 1945 was expropriated and expelled, forming the majority of the Germans expelled from Eastern Europe. The historically Polish and strategically vital for Poland but predominantly German-speaking city of Danzig formed henceforth with its surrounding areas the Free City of Danzig, a self-governing territory supervised by the League of Nations, albeit bound in some aspects by an imposed union with Poland. In Pomerania, Brandenburg, East Prussia, Lusatia, Kodzko Land and Lower Silesia, the former West Slav (Bohemians, Polabian Slavs and Poles) or Baltic population became minorities in the course of the following centuries, but substantial numbers of them remained in areas such as Upper Silesia. Perhaps the Soviet Union is only looking for an easy land grab and forcing us into their sphere of influence. Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia, Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession, Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland, List of placenames in the Province of Pomerania, Prince-Episcopal Delegation for Brandenburg and Pomerania, Apostolic Administration of the Free City of Danzig, Apostolic Administration of Kamie (Cammin), Lubusz (Lebus) and the Prelature of Pia (Schneidemhl), Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany, Lutheran Diocese of Pomerania-Greater Poland, Post-WWII settlement of Poles and Ukrainians, Polish-East German Maritime Border Agreement, Convention on the International Commission on the Protection of the Oder against Pollution,, Articles with German-language sources (de), Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with Polish-language sources (pl), Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2022, Articles that may contain original research from June 2021, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Katowice District (Regierungsbezirk Kattowitz), or. After another century, the bulk of the region was severed from the rest of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, when the Habsburg monarchy lost the Silesian Wars to the Kingdom of Prussia under Frederick the Great, thus being forced to cede most of it (excluding Austrian Silesia) in the Treaties of Breslau and Berlin. Having reasserted their claims on our eastern territories, the Soviet Union has now put pressure on us to cede this land to them, suggesting that this is the only way to avoid another invasion and possible annexation or partition.Ordinarily, giving in to such threats easily would be out of the question, but the Soviet Union is far from our only concern. Interactive corporate website, Gain ownership of the state if it is owned, Gain ownership of the state if it is owned by. In 1938, the northern part of the dissolved Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia became part of the province.

Most of the eastern territories with a predominantly or almost exclusively German population (East Brandenburg, East Prussia, Hither and Farther Pomerania, and the bulk of Silesia) remained with Germany. Drawing from interwar demands by Polish nationalists (albeit far more limited), Poland's sweeping territorial gains of German land were presented as inspired by the Piast vision of an ethnically homogeneous state within the borders of medieval Piast Poland.

[From.GetName] Joins the [Root.GetFactionName]!

Poland lost Lubusz when the Silesian duke Bolesaw II Rogatka sold it to the Ascanian margraves of Brandenburg in 1249.

[citation needed], Some organisations in Germany continue to claim the territories for Germany or property there for German citizens. It was used only by the Federal Republic of Germany; but the Polish and Soviet governments objected to the obvious implication that these territories should someday revert to Germany. Fully German-speaking areas such as Lower Silesia and Farther Pomerania suffered expulsion of its entire indigenous population in 194546. The Duchy of Pomerania was established as a vassal state of Poland in 1121, which it remained until the fragmentation of Poland after the death of Polish ruler Bolesaw III Wrymouth in 1138.

In signing the Helsinki Final Act in 1975, both West Germany and East Germany recognised the existing boundaries of post-war Europe, including the Oder-Neisse line, as valid in international law. Even during the heat of combat, small arms fire brushing the hair on his head, arms and legs, he did not drop a single crate of munitions. The Polish government preferred to use the phrase Recovered Territories, asserting a sort of continuity because parts of these territories had centuries previously been ruled by ethnic Poles. [citation needed] The so-called "homesickness-tourism" which was often perceived as quite aggressive well into the 1990s now tends to be viewed as a good-natured nostalgia tour rather than an expression of anger and desire for the return of the lost territories.

Brandenburg also acquired the castellany of Santok from Duke Przemys I of Greater Poland and made it the nucleus of its Neumark ("New March") region. It stretched roughly from the Oder River in the West to Pomerelia in the East. Along with Farther Pomerania a small area of Western Pomerania including Stettin (today Szczecin) and Swinemnde (today winoujcie) was transferred to Poland in 1945. In the course of the Partitions of Poland, the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire acquired vast territorial shares of the demised Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. [2] These territories had been ruled as part of Poland by the Piast dynasty in the High Middle Ages with the exception of East Prussia which originally was inhabited by Old Prussians and came under Polish suzerainty in the Late Middle Ages. Farther Pomerania comprised the eastern part of the Prussian Province of Pomerania. We will be easy prey if we remain neutral, and have fought too hard to see another partition of Poland.

After pagan revolts and a Bohemian invasion in the 1030s, Duke Casimir I the Restorer (reigned 10401058) again united most of the former Piast realm, including Silesia and Lubusz Land, on both sides of the middle Oder River but without Western Pomerania, which returned to of the Polish state only under Bolesaw III Wrymouth from 1116 to 1121, when the noble House of Griffins established the Duchy of Pomerania. During the Napoleonic era the Greater Polish territories and the Chemno Land formed part of the Duchy of Warsaw following the Treaties of Tilsit, and Danzig was granted a status of a Free City. Restoration of Pomerelia to Poland meant the loss of Germany's territorial contiguousness to East Prussia making it an exclave. [51], In the early history of West Germany, refugee organizations were an important political factor, demanding that Germany never renounce the land that was deemed still part of Germany. Decision as to the admissibility Application no. Nevertheless, it may be the best protection we can count on. The conference agreed to reorganise the Provisionary Polish Government, which had been set up by the Red Army, by the inclusion of some politicians of the Polish government-in-exile, and to transform it into the Provisional Government of National Unity, with an unfulfilled promise to hold democratic and fair elections.

If we agree to their demands, we may have less to worry about on the eastern front, although it would also position the eastern front significantly further to the west. In October 1938 Hlun Area (Hlunsko in Czech, Hultschiner Lndchen in German) of Moravian-Silesian Region, which had been ceded to Czechoslovakia under the Treaty of Versailles, was annexed by the Third Reich as a part of areas lost by Czechoslovakia under the Munich agreement. For the parts of modern Germany that formerly made up East Germany, see, Farther Pomerania and parts of Western Pomerania, Silesia, Kodzko Land and Eastern Lusatia, East Prussia, including Warmia, and the Klaipda Region, Early history, Kingdom of Poland, Teutonic Order State, Lands of the Bohemian Crown and the Holy Roman Empire, Partitions of Poland, Kingdom of Prussia, Duchy of Warsaw, Austrian Empire, Grand Duchy of Posen and German Confederation, North German Confederation, German Empire and Austria-Hungary, Weimar Republic, Second Polish Republic, First Czechoslovak Republic, Free City of Danzig and Klaipda Region, Division of Germany's eastern provinces after 1918, Second World War and the German occupation of Poland, 19391945, West German politics in the early post-World-War-II years, German reunification, GermanPolish Border Treaty and present status, Poland received several cities and counties of West Prussia located east of the, Interwar Silesian Voivodeship was formed from Prussian, All in all, the post-Prussian part of Poland had ca. [1] In contrast to the lands awarded to the restored Polish state by the Treaty of Versailles, the territories lost by Germany after World War II were either almost exclusively inhabited by Germans before 1945 (the bulk of East Prussia, the bulk of Lower Silesia, Farther Pomerania, and the parts of Western Pomerania, Lusatia and Neumark awarded to Poland) or mixed German-Polish with a German majority (Posen-West Prussia Border March, Lauenburg and Btow Land, the southern and western rim of East Prussia, Ermland, West Upper Silesia, and the part of Lower Silesia east of the Oder).
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