However, these associations are generally understood to be secondary, infecting the tree after it becomes stressed or dies. Help accelerate the research by sharing observations of healthy and unhealthy western redcedar trees. From top left to bottom right:Figure 1. However, recent observations of dieback and mortality have raised concern about its ability to cope with changes in the climate. Johnson W. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract. When purchasing plants from a nursery, inspect for signs and symptoms of disease. Please contact us if you are interested in partnering to advance knowledge or if you have content or information to share. Closer examination reveals oval cankersthat are sunken and often reddish with resin exuding from the margins, especially on new, rapidly expanding cankers. Small fungal fruiting bodies, or reproductive structures, can be seen within lesions on dead shoot tips and stems (Figure 4). Cushman KE, Maqbool M, Gerard PD, et al. The foliage turns brown in various places throughout the plant top to bottom and this seems to spread without cause. view the full question and answer, Pruning lower branches of Cordia Boissieri from San AntonioDecember 08, 2013 - My Texas Wild Olive Tree is about 6 feet high now. endstream endobj 21 0 obj <> endobj 22 0 obj <>/MediaBox[0 0 612 792]/Parent 18 0 R/Resources<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 23 0 obj <>stream WSU Puyallup Research & Extension Center, 2606 West Pioneer, Puyallup, WA, 98371-4998 USA We had asked about grasses and perennials. Bayleton 50 T&O at 5.5 oz/69 gal water. Blighting is restricted to branch tips, therefore extensive branch dieback is uncommon in larger plants. An article about planting on slopes in this mo Plan for the mature size of the tree(s) when spacing plants, or plan to remove trees as they begin to intermingle lower branches. We recommend reading Melissa J. Fischers Blog Post (DNR): Western Redcedar East of the Cascades: A Species in Decline? endobj The disease has raised some concern in Florida due to the damage and mortality observed on Leyland cypress. The Forest Health Watch program hosts a visualization of the iNaturalist information here. 4 0 obj 20 0 obj <> endobj One or several brown to black fruiting structures (apothecia) appear on the small leaves in late spring. The visualization updates every day. <> as well as other fungal and insect pests. It is also found in landscape plantings of junipers in central and eastern America where it reduces the vigor and aesthetic quality of ornamental trees and shrubs in the landscape. Mancozeb-based products. Western redcedars can be distinguished from other cedars by their erect egg shaped cones and the butterfly shaped bloom on the underside of leaves. Propagate from disease-free stock plants. You can help research go faster by contributing to the Western Redcedar Dieback Map. The disease progression gives the appearance of having been scorched by fire. The fruiting bodies may appear black, dark brown, or gray and may be observed with the aid of a hand lens. Inspect trees and shrubs, especially those less than 5 years old, for symptoms of tip blight and dieback from February through May. Lone Pine Publishing; 1994. ^u@euWT6P%}\>t/;3U@cw#b]fX">^qu33 jNLbw_HTLbba@-:#GxbgF0tX9b `Yk-P#m0k#(b !4%(:SX"(t_wfs VNf cPktWvzfK-*7(a6K*[ES\T(YeeiLD0UDZ;`S xA(_RVAeJ4lM2t^N1y&cg8}]78^=*/)AvfhvvQsx _sX/Diw#Jft N`>oV-*Opb$c During wet periods, avoid shearing and other operations that could facilitate spore dispersal and infection. Even after a tree has fallen, its bole can remain largely intact on the ground for centuries. Vicki endstream endobj startxref The wood, berries, and leaves are used for medicine. Conditions that keep foliage wet, aid disease development and spread. If disease has been observed, remove infected limbs using proper pruning techniques: Prune plants during dry weather in summer after primary infection has occurred or in winter before new growth is produced in spring. Western redcedar grows widely throughout our region because of its tolerance to shade, flooding and nutrient poor soils. (615) 289-7373 Excessive fertilization results in succulent plant growth, which is highly susceptible to many pest and disease problems. Under environmental conditions that are favorable to disease development, the pathogen will progress from foliage to succulent shoot stems and eventually toward woody tissues. Although Eastern Red Cedar is resistant to this disease, it does occasionally occur on it. Join the Western Redcedar Dieback Map project and share your observations with us on 142 0 obj <> endobj Culturally, western redcedar is considered a Cultural Keystone Species because its multiple uses and value to indigenous North American communities (read more below). hbbd```b``"A$I "YWx ~ Here is more information on the Cercospora blight. Helping Ohio's green industry identify and manage diseases of ornamental plants, Botryosphaeria Canker and Dieback of Juniper, Pestalotiopsis Tip Blight and Dieback of Conifers, C. Wayne Ellett Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic, Greenhouse Industry Roundtable of the Midwest, Cool weather, high humidity and abundant moisture. Repeated infections do not occur throughout the growing season, therefore disease severity is usually low and tree death is uncommon. These qualities include fast growth, easy propagation, dense pyramidal shape and good drought tolerance once the tree is established. bugs infestations pest dnr Please contact us if you know additional reports or resources to add. Leaves turn brown and drop in fall.

HK#1c"\&) WAAm&in.B7m6dm$d>*6m!@?idL06i=Y&?q\r&~Igm&a `,S. Dead foliage is typically cast in May and June. The program also hosts monthly Research Update events on MS Teams. endstream endobj 143 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O(mdftP%:AFF 5kp\)~! Did we miss any? Region: Midwest Predicting the risk of cedar leaf blight (Didymascella thujina) in British Columbia under future climate change. Look for small lesions near the base of dead shoots and branches, which marks the transition between healthy and dead tissue. Water plant(s) during periods of drought. They are not drought stressed. 2005 - 2022 WebMD LLC. I bought it at the 2012 plant sale. Information on The Ohio State University laboratory can be found on theC. Wayne Ellett Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic website. 12-hr reentry. ash borer emerald disease tree wappingers falls pest management damage Moerman DE. This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Keep weeds and other vegetation from encroaching around the base of trees or shrubs to encourage air circulation among and light penetration to the lower branches. Irrigate during morning hours so that plants will have sufficient time to dry. Kabatina tip blight symptoms on Thuja occidentalis (Cheryl Kaiser, University of Kentucky,;Figure 2. Cause Didymascella thujina, a fungus. Once the pathogen has become well established in/on the host, the specimen may need to be removed from the landscape. The leaves have small brown spots that increase in size until the leaf dies and falls off, then the branch and then the entire limb. You might also contact your St. Louis County MU Extension Center to see if they have had other reports of diseased junipers. 87 0 obj <>stream This article lists control measures including watering, fertilizing and pruning advice, as well as methods for chemical control. Russell, J.H., Kope, H.H., Ades, P., and Collinson, H. 2007. There is a general consensus among land managers, federal and state natural resource agencies, and WSU Extension Forestry specialists that the driver of the dieback is abiotic. This started in the spring and continues through the summer. VzN@V7;{WjP}NzZDD_II8xnUS~#],)M}$}X(O=|mnX_~H% 0PNe}J/6i uiJt22\ Do not grow susceptible cultivars downwind of infected hedges, windbreaks, or nearby stands of native western red cedar. We hope, however, we can point you in the right direction to find resources that can help you with your Juniperus virginiana (eastern redcedar) problems. view the full question and answer, Brown spots on native oak treesJune 16, 2015 - Hi, My native live oak trees are declining. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version. You _iQ`*h| E 1UQp^fQ[fFZGD+J/be%%X Ee]N-/*>'%`.jR9OB2LhKu]i fk8-Ce`Z,0UoBG]]^ M\-Xp 4|D?1kg/n&kTX"?,? hbbd```b``"H fv:yLIq&H@qc X\lr^9 There are several diseases that are listed as common to the junipers, but the three with symptoms that sound most like that of your trees are: 1) the Phomopsis and Kabatina Tip Blights of Junipers caused by the two fungi Phomopsis juniperova and Kabatina juniperi. Do not let mulch touch the bark of woody plants, as this may reduce aeration in the soil. WebMD does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Disease management options for Seiridium canker are limited. Did we miss any? Need help with plant identification, visit the plant identification page. Commonly affected species include the eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana), Rocky Mountain juniper (J. scopulorum), creeping juniper (J. horizontalis), and savin juniper (J. sabina). Did you know you can access the Native Plant Information Network with your web-enabled smartphone? view the full question and answer, Mixed native plantings for steep slope in Austin April 18, 2007 - Dear Mr. Smarty Plants: We wrote to you recently about plantings for a fairly steep slope in a park in Austin. Western Redcedar East of the Cascades: A Species in Decline? Fungal diseases can be distinguished by microscopic examination of fruiting bodies and spores. Timber press; 1998. Conifer species better adapted to Florida growing conditions, less likely to be drought-stressed, and with resistance toSeiridiumspp appear in Table 1. Blighted juniper shoots as a result of Kabatina tip blight (Bruce Watt, University of Maine,; Figure 4. %PDF-1.6 % Proper plant spacing will minimize moisture retention on the plant surface and will decrease the likelihood of disease development. IPM incorporates a wide range of strategies to prevent, minimize, and/or control abiotic and biotic diseases and pests. 0 Look for red to yellow shoot tips, which gradually become brown and necrotic throughout spring. endstream endobj 147 0 obj <>stream Why aren't all blue spruce trees blue?February 07, 2010 - I have been looking at blue spruce trees recently and I have noticed at a couple tree farms that not all blue spruce look blue at all. Two native tree species, southern red cedar (Juniperus silicicola) and Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) are well adapted to Florida conditions (if local seed origins are used) and possess qualities similar to those of Leyland cypress. ` co 48-hr reentry. The costs and benefits of each strategy should be evaluated before making management decisions. ` Avoid excessive pruning or shearing, especially during spring and fall. Pojar J, MacKinnon A, Alaback PB. These strategies involve monitoring and scouting, learning behavior and life cycle of pests and pathogens, accurately identifying the source of disease, developing threshold levels, employing preventive measures and integrating cultural, mechanical, biological and chemical controls. <> Given its extent throughout the region, it is likely linked with recent drought events, but the relationship has not been empirically tested. British Columbia recommends regular sprays from late March through May and again from late August through October. stream This Thuja x 'Steeplechase' has leaf blight where the apothecia are embedded in leaf tissues which have dropped out leaving deep pits. Neither text, nor links to other websites, is reviewed or endorsed by The Ohio State University. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you. Welcome to our webpage about the dieback of western redcedar. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz. endobj Dead foliage will be prematurely cast, most often in late May through June. Spore discharge from wetted apothecia begins in late spring and increases gradually during the summer, reaching a peak between late August and early November. Other susceptible hosts include species of false cypress, arborvitae, Japanese cedar, true fir, Douglas fir, and yew. 42 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2AFE9CD2F6249041A5C7E65D3B5097C3><2FF60BA68B67AA4B9CA8E561A56DFB5B>]/Index[20 68]/Info 19 0 R/Length 111/Prev 359078/Root 21 0 R/Size 88/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream )/Elqx[yB,-i &? N(e_WXB|z)5Z3gbm7d68x$hZ~hQXXFo)`(O)+0cU@z)C/@^&.dF UYh. Conduct regular soil and plant tissue analysis tests to determine if plants require supplemental nutrients. Chemical control Apply during wet periods in spring and fall to protect healthy foliage. All rights reserved. Avoid planting susceptible species in poorly drained soils or shaded areas of the landscape. Pruning out and burning affected twigs is of limited use. Infected shoots and branches should be pruned back to live wood. Although the disease is found mostly in warm-moist environments typical of coastal low elevations of the Pacific Northwest, the pathogen is endemic to North America and found throughout the natural range of western red cedar. Avoid wounding plants during cultivation. Unfortunately, many reports of dieback have been noted during the past few years, ranging from Oregon to British Columbia (see below). Here is more information on Phomopsis blight and on Kabatina tip blight. Click here for instructions to share your observations, Click here to see how community scientists like you have already contributed, Redcedar Dieback Map iNaturalist project, Urban Forest Health: western redcedar and drought, Dead tree after dead tree. The case of Washingtons dying foliage, Western red cedars are dying of drought in Vancouver and scientists say its one more portent of climate change, Western red cedars die off as extended dry spells continue, say experts, Summer drought deals devastating loss to western red cedar, B.C.s official tree. Although individual high-value trees may be protected by fungicides and pruning out individual infected branches might prolong survival of susceptible trees, planting either resistant species or varieties is the only realistic option for long-term disease control. Plant several species and cultivars to maintain diversity in the landscape and prevent disease outbreaks in the future. Given the clear importance of this is species, it is no wonder why western redcedar is commonly referred to as the tree of life.

Landscape only, not for use on plants for sale. Provide plants with adequate water during establishment. Leyland cypress is a hybrid between two Pacific coast species that are native to cool climates and unsuited to Florida's hot and dry seasons. Leyland cypress can be killed or severely disfigured by the disease. phSqf60-g8Y81`1>?ezpUcSpeS'PeKqkZK[[?Q'x?.iU5dLWf:{Q|7Uq~g{@7_q3/.P2oNqFfVUnTU5Yo:8HkJ#zzUi Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. It is also used widely in restoration activities locally and as an ornamental species internationally. Use seed from British Columbia coastal, low-elevation populations. fG+]WA^pJ{iqb @QJO[MB!Qt%Fh5a_0XIaQNhiSA-wbKpvT[=" .?0d{Q_6$/V%*J5\' However, seedlings are most severely affected. Group 3 fungicide. Pruned branches should be discarded or burned. Symptoms Small, bleached spots on the upper surface of one-year-old leaves appear first. Apothecia are imbedded in leaf tissues; the entire structure drops out, leaving deep pits. These cultures rely on western redcedar for its medicinal properties, nutritional and dietary provisions, role in spiritual practices, and the materials it provides for warmth, shelter, and transportation. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your, Smart Grocery Shopping When You Have Diabetes, Surprising Things You Didn't Know About Dogs and Cats, Multi-Country Hepatitis Outbreak in Children, Needle-Free Epinephrine Options Are On The Horizon, Longer Vaccine Interval May Boost Antibodies 9 Times, How Walmart Is Rethinking Health (Medscape video), Dr. Whyte's Book: Take Control of Your Diabetes Risk, Health News and Information, Delivered to Your Inbox, Vitamins and Supplements to Avoid with Hepatitis C. View abstract. Susceptible species growing in natural stands do not sustain significant damage. Variation in cedar leaf blight (Didymascella thujina) resistance of western redcedar (Thuja plicata). S2*pRF*|K0 7!81ZAj 0Iwh. Find more instructions at Once a stem is girdled by a canker, all foliage and woody tissue above the lesion site will become blighted and dieback.

Answered by: Nan Hampton. Home| Contact Us | Jobs | Citizen Science | Our Community | Support Our Program, Forest Health Watch Biosurveillance Training, E-Flora BC: Electronic atlas of the flora of British Columbia, Cultural Keystone Species: implications for ecological conservation and restoration, Silvics and silviculture of coastal western redcedar: a literature review, Holocene history of cedar and native indian cultures of the North American Pacific Coast, A Vanishing Heritage: The Loss of Ancient Red Cedar. Thank you! We hope to be accepting new questions again soon. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 180:152-163. The pathogen enters the host foliage or stems through wounds which may be caused by insects, winter injury, or mechanical damage and it overwinters in plant tissue and debris that was infected during the previous growing season, usually in the fall. Some that are listed as Co. Blue Spruce are very green. From: St. Louis, MO The appropriate dose of Eastern red cedar depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. Symptoms develop the season after spore dispersal. endobj Commercially, it is valued highly because of its durability and resistance to wood rotting fungi. When planting new trees in the landscape, space them to allow for optimum air circulation within and between plants and sunlight penetration into the trees interior. Some sedative medications are changed and broken down by the liver. The massive size of many trees throughout the region is testament to its capacity for long-term survival. Tumen I, Sntar I, Eller FJ, Keles H, Akkol EK. The disease is found primarily on western red cedar (Thuja plicata), especially the cultivars Atrovirens and Excelsa. More information about this healthy, seasonal expression is available here. /ZB=-B ai~kHyX/]v^A%>v)U[~0 KeW|2.:mlkl\:2=wH%moN The disease is especially common in nursery plantings where it has been detrimental to young juniper seedlings, grafts, and transplants and, in epidemic years, has caused total loss of first year seedlings. The fungal pathogen, Kabatina juniperi, is the causal agent of tip blight of juniper and can also cause tip and shoot blights, cankers, and dieback on a wide range of other conifer species. Infected leaves that remain on the tree turn ashy gray. juniperi) that causes Cercospora Blight of Juniper. Of course, the best way to be sure if one of these is infecting your trees is to contact a professional arborist to look at them. 1 Disease Resistance of Juniper Cultivars. Western redcedar (Thuja plicata) is an iconic species of the Pacific Northwest because of its rich cultural value.

I have multiple Eastern Red Cedars spaced in my woods which are sick and dying. Yet, others think staff members play some, albeit small, role. I live in St. Louis, MO. endstream endobj 24 0 obj <>stream There isn't enough information to know how Eastern red cedar might work as a medicine. If you have trouble accessing this page and need to request an alternate format, contact Lw\ MAL4ggwCQ7y3j.{_FTJ_e+MJiUh,{9Ct$[ !ut$,@c|HUrWs#811f@0L"P,N"u(YB7qWr$ 0 Avoid purchasing plants that look defoliated, discolored or wilted. Forest Health Forester Integrated pest management (IPM) is an approach to plant health care and disease and pest control. In Florida, Leyland cypress has been widely promoted and planted in ornamental settings when other species are better adapted. Thanks. Otherwise, do not fertilize woody plants. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. can torture us with your plant questions, but we will never reveal the Green Fore 80 WP at 1.5 lb/100 gal water plus a spreader-sticker.

Group 3 fungicide. Remove plant debris from seed before seeding. References Gray, L.K., Russell, J.H., Alvin D., Yanchuk, A.D., and Hawkins, B.J. Quarantine incoming plants and inspect for signs and symptoms of disease. Please forgive us, but Mr. Smarty Plants has been overwhelmed by a flood of mail and must take a break for awhile to catch up. If possible, do not water newly planted trees or shrubs with sprinklers or overhead irrigation, which will keep foliage wet for long periods. For more information refer to Table. It is important to identify the cause of disease in order to make proper management and control decisions. Is it too late to plant evergreen Thuja, blue spruce and firs in Cleveland, New York?

Eastern red cedar is a tree. Disease management considerations and tree replacements with resistance to Seiridium canker are recommended. Please contact us if you know additional reports or resources to add. The number of capsules used is based on tree size. Diseased foliage will turn a dull green, gradually becoming a red (Figure 1) to yellow (Figure 2) color, before turning brown and dying (Figure 3). Western redcedar die-off in Seattle Parks. The symptoms of Seiridium canker most often appear as "flag" branches where individual branches fade from green to yellow to reddish-brown due to girdling cankers. Seiridium canker, also known as Cypress canker, was first reported in California in the late 1920s and has since spread throughout North America and into Florida wherever Cupressaceae (cypress family) grow. .z\zW]'gB<=}_|u3hnD jy; lz|Eq6_jG~bt<21!51^JbAaPg FYoP^q d|[I8z76Y_q|\Ji1OGz\U0aK=7m'C9b6DeFA 6LH}T5g?M#1b&kTwr}#]k Li yJ02W :M'yg` n JnRi/op:|"m^Pe((6PNFe](bR".~J/!HB^~*T )EBRoAB5 zrbTQJb&-.E3b+}6f8y3{|u2|^tTO'/6 Both species are also planted widely throughout the urban areas of cities such as Seattle. Acervuli produce asexual spores, called conidia, which are released in response to moisture. Every part, from the roots to the tips of the boughs, can be crafted into useful products that were commonly used by ancient peoples of the Pacific Northwest. Kabatina juniperi is an opportunistic pathogen, infecting plants that have been previously stressed. Observations of bark beetle and fungal associations with dead western redcedar trees have been shared, particularly in trees around Seattle. Drip irrigation or hand watering is preferable. Can also be confused with the minor problem caused by Pseudocercospora thujina (formerly Coryneum thujinum). Kabatina tip blight causes foliar discoloration, cankers and dieback. ]vc'$ >H|8TaP621Hhe%dP +AS0`ii?1-4i #2i&2PF6X&3VfdIG`Vr}dNb_ `2e0? view the full question and answer, Proper time of year to plant evergreens in New YorkOctober 25, 2008 - Dear Smarty Plants, Otherwise, do not fertilize woody plants. <>/XObject<>/ExtGState<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Please note: browning of older, interior foliage during the early fall is not an indicator of tree decline. On some branches it starts at the tips, other times not. All management decisions should be carried out based upon the specific requirements of the plant. Weve launched the Forest Health Watch program to host research projects that anyone can contribute to as community scientists. This leads to drought stress for trees on many sites in Florida and predisposition toSeiridiumspp. Native American ethnobotany. Find more information and resources to learn about its incredible cultural heritage below. OTHER NAME(S): Ashe Juniper, Bois de Virginie, Cedar, C dre. Some were transplanted years ago, others are volunteers, all are less than 4 ft tall. Disc-shaped fruiting bodies, called acervuli, are produced within diseased tissue of the host, and once mature, rupture the epidermal tissue. If disease is suspected, samples can be sent to a diagnostic laboratory for confirmation. Junipers are generally considered low maintenance plants because they are relatively resistant to many major pests and diseases, although there are some fungal diseases that can cause significant damage to the crop. % Fungicides are ineffective for Kabatina tip blight. <>>> Symptoms usually appear on the terminal 2-6 of branch tips in late winter or early spring the year following initial infection and before new growth has been initiated. endstream endobj startxref dH A few exotic species are worth trying in Florida and have previously performed well in the region. Banner MAXX at 5 to 8 fl oz/100 gal water can be used if not phytotoxic to plants. We are also actively pursuing opportunities to secure more support for research about the dieback of western redcedar. Topas (propiconazole) is registered in British Columbia for use every 4 weeks during the growing season to a maximum of six (6) applications. Space nursery plants and time irrigation to promote rapid drying of foliage. This species is most abundant in coastal Oregon and northern California, but is commonly planted as an ornamental species. (field bean, kidney, lima, navy, and pinto), Control of Some Common Aquatic Weeds with Herbicides, Treated Water Use Restrictions (Number of Days), Effectiveness of Major Forestry-registered Herbicides during Seasons of Optimum Usage, Oregon Basis, Herbicide Recommendations for Control of Listed Species, Recommendations for Broadcast Spraying for Control of Listed Species, Hybrid Cottonwood (Hybrid Poplar) Grown for Pulp, Vegetation Management in Orchards, Vineyards, and Berries, Blueberry, Gooseberry, Currant, and Elderberry, Important Preharvest Intervals (PHIs) for Vegetables, Site Preparation, Stale Seedbeds, and Directed Nonselective Applications, Crop Rotation Intervals (months) for Common Soil-active Herbicides, Herbicide Effectiveness in Christmas Trees, Weed Control in Container-grown Nursery Stock, Weed Control in Field-grown Nursery Stock, Ornamental Bulb, Rhizome, Corm, and Tuber Crops, Established Tree, Shrub, Rose, and Ground Cover Landscapes, Bulb, Flower Beds, and Native Wildflowers, General Maintenance around Ornamental Plantings, Weed Treatments and Available Products for Home Gardens and Landscapes, Managing Unwanted Vegetation in Riparian Restoration Sites, What to Do in Case of Pesticide Poisoning, Personal Protective Equipment Definitions, Cleaning, Recycling, and Disposing of Agricultural Pesticide Containers, Disposing of Unusable Pesticides and Agricultural, Household and Residential Pesticide Products, Pesticides, Endangered Species, and Mandatory No-spray Buffer Zones, Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides, Minimum Personal Protective Equipment and Work Clothing for Handling Activities.

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